The historical debate is heated on virtually all other questions: the explanation for contract law’s individualist bias; how old this individualism is (here positions range along a timeline of some six hundred years); and, closely related, what were the minimal features which made any particular constellation of contract rules, doctrines, or theoretical rationalizations distinctively individualistic. It is possibly the breadth of these debates that renders the picture of classical contract law so obvious and its individualism so dominant. Just below the heat of debates, the story of a single individualistic meaning of contract serves as common ground. A hotly contested field has managed to produce an uncontested historical consciousness.
THE INDIVIDUALISTIC MEANING OF JEWISH
Subsequent post hoc comparisons of the significant univariate effects (see ) showed that individuals with a transcendent meaning orientation were significantly less depressed, experienced greater purpose, experienced a greater sense of coherence, perceived greater choice and a sense of responsibleness, were more active in goal pursuits, and exhibited positive personality traits such as being more outgoing, more open to experience, more agreeable, and more conscientious compared with individuals who found meaning in sources reflecting self-serving interests. No significant difference between the transcendent (M = 3.6) and the self-preoccupied (M = 3.5) meaning orientations was found for self-rated physical health. When compared with the collectivistic and the individualistic orientations, transcenders also enjoyed better physical health, experienced greater purpose in life, perceived greater choice and a sense of responsibleness, were more active in goal pursuits, more outgoing, and more open to experience. In turn, individuals with a collectivistic orientation enjoyed better physical health, experienced greater purpose and coherence in life, and were more conscientious compared with those with a self-preoccupied orientation (2 vs. 4). Individuals with an individualistic orientation experienced greater purpose and coherence in life, were more outgoing, and were more agreeable compared with those with a self-preoccupied orientation (3 vs. 4). Finally, the adjusted mean scores on the psychosocial variables for the collectivistic and the individualistic meaning orientations fell between the transcendent and the self-preoccupied orientations, but only choice/responsibleness significantly differentiated the collectivistic from the individualistic individuals, with the former perceiving greater choice in their lives and an increased sense of responsibleness. In general, when all significant psychosocial variables are considered together, individuals with a transcendent personal meaning orientation showed the best adjustment in physical, psychological, social, and emotional well-being domains whereas those with a self-preoccupied orientation anchored the opposite end of the adjustment continuum.
ence for the individualistic meaning of each variation
As a test of Hypothesis 1, cluster analysis performed on the SOMP-R Scale revealed four distinct groups. Results are graphically presented in . Cluster 1 (self-transcendent meaning orientation) consisted of 32 individuals oriented toward transcendent sources of meaning, such as engaging in religious activities, preserving human values and ideals, leaving a legacy for the next generation, interest in humanistic concerns, and relationship with nature. Cluster 2 (collectivistic meaning orientation) comprised 24 individuals who found meaning in personal relationships, service to others, and commitment toward larger societal/political causes. Cluster 3 (individualistic meaning orientation) consisted of 34 individuals who found meaning through devotion of time and energy to realize their personal potential such as taking part in creative activities, experiencing personal growth, and taking part in religious activities. Cluster 4 (self-preoccupied meaning orientation) identified 30 individuals who were primarily oriented toward finding meaning through pursuing self-serving interests, such as engaging in hedonistic activities and obtaining material possessions, without any real commitment to personal development, interpersonal relationships, or social causes. These meaning-orientation clusters formed the four levels of the independent variable.
relation to its normally very individualistic meaning