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There is no doubt that Waltz (1979) Neorealism’s beautiful creation of a grand theory at systemic level had remarkably influenced later IR researches. For some time, the most important paradigms of international politics were all system level theories. This situation has, in a sense, caused a lot of scholars (Schweller, 2004; Zakaria, 1998; Wohlforth, 1993) to oppose to the disconnection between system or structure and state. These scholars are left wanting by the frugal account of Neorealism, so in order to get superior accuracy, neoclassical realists incorporated domestic-level variables into their explication of international politics. Thus, neoclassical realists lay open the black-box of the state (Baylis et al, 2008:99).

Rose, G. (1998) Review: Neoclassical Realism and Theories of Foreign Policy. 51(1), pp. 144-172.

However, neoclassical realism also draws attention to a third factor accounting for variation in sensitivity to relative gains: each state's role within the global balance of power. It is less burdensome for some states to take greater moral action on climate change because the international wealth transfers involved hardly affects their own security. For example, many developed countries are ultimately reliant on the United States for their collective security, especially Japan, European countries and Canada. Since their defeat in World War II, Germany and Japan have refrained from expressing their strength through traditional military means (; ). Thus, the diversion of additional funds to climate change instead of military expenditures would not significantly affect these states’ position in the global balance of military power.

Neoclassical realism is a theory of international relations

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What is the difference between neoclassicism and realism?

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Debating IR: Neoclassical realism